As of 2019, C and C++ are the only programming languages that are supported by virtually any platforms on the market. For example both iOS and android support compiling C and C++ directly as part of their official IDEs.
This is one of the reason why I decided to write my voxel editor Goxel in C99: I wanted to be able to run it on Linux, Mac, Windows, iOS, and now I am working on a Android port as well.
While the code of goxel is mainly C99, there are a few external libraries that I use that are written in C++. I compile them directly alongside the code, so I don’t have to care about binary release or ABI compatibility.
In theory this is great, except that recently I get more and more difficulties making C++ work in a cross platform way. The C++ that I learned a long time ago (basically C with some extra syntax for class and templates) has been updated to a more modern language with the C++11, C++14 and C++17 versions. Those new versions added features like lambda, variadic, templates, binding declarations, etc… The standard C++ library (almost considered a part of the language) has also seen a lot of changes.
The difficulty comes from the fact that not all C++ features are implemented by all toolchains. For each version of gcc and clang (the two most popular C++ compilers) there is a set of features that are supported, and it’s almost impossible to keep track which one. Also different versions will have some subtle differences in how they interpret the specification.
This doesn’t matter if you work on a fixed environment: you can just use whatever feature is available with the toolchain you use. But if you want to be able to port your code to other platform, you can only use the smallest subset of C++ that is supported by all of those platforms.
Because of this I run into troubles in goxel. Here is an example of build that worked on my machine, but failed on travis continuous integration server: https://travis-ci.org/guillaumechereau/goxel/jobs/553716829
One of the errors here is:
In file included from src/yocto.cpp:56: src/../ext_src/yocto/yocto_shape.cpp:1632:42: error: no matching function for call to 'size' solver.graph.reserve(size(positions) + size(edges));
This seemed to indicate that
std::size wasn’t recognised by clang 7, but
in fact some local tests show me that it is. Maybe the header
wasn’t properly included? Or the compiler didn’t try the
function from std because some other size function have been defined?
It is really hard to tell, and I couldn’t reproduce this on my computer even
with clang 7.
An other error from the same travis failed build:
src/../ext_src/yocto/yocto_image.cpp:339:9: error: cannot decompose this type; 'std::tuple_size<const yocto::vec4f>::value' is not a valid integral constant expression auto& [a, b, c, d] = abcd;
Once again, this is hard to tell how to fix that. Different versions of clang and gcc could have different idea of what is an integral constant expression.
Since all those errors are sent to me by email from travis servers, I have no way to test them by myself, I can only attempt to fix the code and submit a new version until it works.
At least with C (or C99), I am usually certain that if the code compile with one version of the compiler it will with all the others. There are a few language extension to avoid (like gcc nested function, of clang blocks) but that’s pretty much it.
The solution is probably to avoid most ‘modern’ C++ feature and only use those that have been proved to work well everywhere. I urge people who write open sources libraries to avoid using C++ features as much as possible. Consider using C99 instead.